Have you ever heard the news related to the spread of an infectious epidemic outbreaks either from news readers or from articles using certain terms such as endemic, epidemic and pandemic to explain the rate of transmission of the disease? But do you understand with the terms used earlier?
A local transmission cases at the same rate as the previous year. For example, dengue fever which becomes an issue when the rainy season occurs. Because at that time the aedes mosquito had a place to breed. therefore, the frequency of dengue fever that occurs frequently is termed as endemic. But with the conditions apply that the number of dengue cases that occurs does not increase and maintain at the same or almost the same rate in the previous year.
⭕️ Epidemic & Pandemic
Is an increase in the number of local transmission cases. This situation can be seen when there are certain diseases that increase the rate beyond the expected number. For example, the transmission of covid-19 outbreaks occurring in the Wuhan region, China at the end of 2019. the novel virus was named covid-19 and was identified as the same group of the Corona virus including SARS and the common cold.
At an early stage in China in 2019, this epidemic resulted in few deaths and low cases of infection and only spread in the Wuhan region at that time.
This Covid-19 outbreaks does not stop at the epidemic stage only, it then becomes a global concern when this Corona Virus crosses the borders of China. In February 2020, there are already 9 countries recording deaths outside the china border.
China national health commission has announced deaths due to Covid-19 has increased to 4,634 cases while those who are infected are 85,255 cases. The number of these outbreaks has exceeded the number of deaths due to SARS outbreaks in the previous year. therefore, when an epidemic infection has transcended local boundaries or national borders, this situation is referred as pandemic.
In conclusion, endemic is local transmission at the same rate as previous years. while an epidemic is an increase in the number of local contagion cases and a pandemic is an increase in the number of cases that transcend local boundaries or national borders.